19.02.2018. It would not be a great exaggeration to say that modern civilization was established by money. It is by right related to such great invention of human though as pottery table, wheel and script of course. The earliest mention of the money is dated by the middle of II millennium BC – clay plate from Mesopotamia between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the south of modern Iraq indicates the payment made by certain silver measure. Later in the Ancient East, metal bullions or stone weights of certain weight or measurement started to function as the money. The appearance of scale weights, which were necessary for accurate weight measurement of goods, is marked by numerous archaeological findings dated by the end of IV and III millenniums BC – the Neolith and Early Bronze Ages. These scale weights were found by the archaeologists on the territory of Turkmenistan in Anau, Kara-depe, Namazga-depe, Yilgynly-depe and many other monuments of those times. They were also used in later stage when people of northern Kopetdag foothills developed fertile delta of Murgab River hwere the Kingdom known nowadays as the country of Margush or Ancient Margiana appeared.

It also had other forms of payments on higher level of the civilization development. During the excavations at the main gates of Gonur-depe stronghold, so-called tokens – clay balls with different marks were discovered.

Archaeologists Victor Sarianidi who found it suggested that these were calculating tokens, which were left at the entry to the King’s stronghold when some goods or products were brought there. It also has all the reason to assume that these balls were used as the money.

There is another collection of items from the country of Margush, which might be considered as ancient money. This is about stone and ceramic spindle whorls with engravings in the shape of various circles and lines. This was mass material, which was found at all monuments of Ancient Margiana. Metal spindle whorls – flat round items with the hole and relief edge in the centre, which were found in Anjikuin oasis in the ancient delta of Murgab River, are relatively rare. Numismatist Vladimir Tyunibekyan assumed that these spindle whorls could be put on the rope as it was made in Ancient China to make the calculation of big numbers easier.

11.02.2018. At the session of the Cabinet of Ministers on February 9, President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov highlighted the historical importance of new findings discovered by the scientists in Dankanakan Fortress in Mary Velayat. Archaeological excavations at this medieval monuments, which is located 30 kilometres west of Mary, are carried out under the work on study of historical and cultural heritage of the Great Silk Road.

Numerous fragments of glass items and entire glassware as well as several small metal instruments have been discovered in Dandanakan. Typological analysis has proven that this items were medical instruments of medieval doctors.

The Head of the State noted that the findings in Dandanakan shed the light on the history of our country being important evidence of high Turkmen culture and their contribution to the development of sciences and human civilization. The Leader of the Nation highlighted that Turkmen land is located in the centre of ancient Silk Road and keeps many uncovered mysteries and event s of the past. Having revealed these secrets, Turkmenistan would attract the attention of entire world to its richest history.

4. ANCIENT TURKMEN CITIES ARE THE CENTRES OF MEDICAL SCIENCE

As is known from medieval sources, the cities along the Silk Route running across the territory of Turkmenistan were famous with the hospitals – the maristans. It was not just medical facilities, it often combined the functions of medical school and philanthropic institutions. Inside and outside it looked like traditional Central Asian madrasah with spacious inner yard with water pool in the centre.

The international Monetary Fund (IMF) predicts encouraging trends in the economic development of Asian countries in nearest two years.
While the GDP growth rate in Asian emerging and developing economies amounted to 6.4% in 2016, the January issue of World Economic Outlook Update says the growth will be at 6.5% and 6.6% in 2018-2019, respectively.
The region will still account for more than half of global growth.
The experts explain the dynamic recovery of global economy with the next cyclical rebound. Some 120 economies, accounting for three quarters of world GDP, have shown the signs of upsurge in last year. This is the broadest synchronized global growth since 2010.
The optimistic situation is observed in world trade. The growth is driven by high investment activity and increased manufacturing output in Asia. In addition, the stable demand for products of processing industry will remain in the foreseeable future.
Taking into account the forecasts of IMF, the economy of Turkmenistan will have promising prospects. So, according to outcomes of 2017, the increase in the gross value added of the industry was reasoned by the rapid growth of the manufacturing industry at 7.4%.
High production indicators were registered in such sectors as metallurgy and metal processing, mechanical engineering, petrochemistry, light industry, food and printing industry.

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The world energy market is currently prevailed by fossil fuels. However, growing concern on climate change and depleting resources that are associated with the use of fossil fuels, put the the renewable energy sources at forefront of energy economy.
The production of biofuel from waste is a two-phase process. The biomass is first converted into a biocrude oil using a chemical and thermal process. Crude oil is the same oil that has not yet been refined and still contains impurities. The second stage is a refining, during which hydrogen removes sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen. However, hydrogen is expensive. Moreover, the process isaccompanied by CO2 emissions.
Chemical engineers from University of Calgary, Canada, have invented a way to produce a higher quality, more stable fuel from biowaste, such as sewage.
The team of scientists decided to simplify the conversion process in order to make it cost-effective and environment-friendly.
They used methane instead of hydrogen for the purification process directly at the crude stage. The hydrogen, needed to remove impurities, had to be chemically removed from the methane.
For this purpose, they added innovative catalyst HZSM-5 that reacted with methane to release hydrogen, because the methane hardly reacts with many other compounds.
The researchers are still in search of the best suitable and efficient catalyst.
Initial experiments, held with using the methane and catalyst, indicate that the production of bio-fuel has lower costs than the current method. Moreover, carbon, remaining in the liquid oil, enriches the quality characteristics of final products, having less greenhouse gas emissions.

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It is not a jock. Indeed, the Celestial Empire is making plans, together with the states concerned, to lay the Arctic trade routes within the framework of the “Polar Silk Road” initiative. It is stated in the White Paper on Arctic policy, first of its kind, published by the State Council of the PRC.
The purpose of this fabulous, at first sight, initiative is economic. China is ready, together with the countries of the Arctic region, to create an economic corridor between the Celestial Empire and the Old World via the Arctic Ocean.
Beijing promises to promote its companies in fulfilment of the first commercial flights, if they will participate in this project.
The White Paper emphasizes that the China is ready, together with the countries of the region, to extract hydrocarbons and other minerals in the Arctic, as well as to expand fishing and tourism, respecting the traditions, customs, culture and way of life of natives of this rough land.
Herewith, China emphasizes that will comply with environmental requirements and develop scientific research in the Arctic.
Many experts believe that due the harsh climate, the development of the wealth of the Arctic is a matter for the future. However, there is no doubt that if the Celestial Empire is involved in, the polar spaces can turn into a lively trade route very soon.

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